WATER SAFETY: How to Obtain Clean and Safe Water During
Flooding Season for Domestic Use (except drinking water).
Nur Uyuni Shammimie Mohd Fisol, Balqis binti Mustapha Kamil
MRSM Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang
Water safety for domestic use after floods, cyclones and disasters can be associated with
health risks, infections and water-borne disease. During the flooding season, raw water was
polluted with organic substances and decomposition of animal corpses which contains a lot
of harmful microorganisms. A study was conducted to investigate three sources of water,
river A, river B and river C to be used as safe domestic water by villagers.
The raw water was first treated with alum to coagulate some of the heavy particle. The
raw water was then filtered using our own developed filter column to produce clean domestic
water. The raw water before and after was tested for qualitative analysis using microscale
chemistry apparatus. pH test using natural indicator, electrolysis test and cation test was
also conducted. The contaminant element was tested using ICP OES.
It was found that river A of Beta filtration is the murkiest among three of the water after
going through electrolysis process. Also, after being added to the potassium iodide, it
shows that none of the water contains lead. River C of Beta filtration does not formed
white precipitate after being added to sodium hydroxide. It also shows that all of the water
is acidic because of the alum presence in water.
To reduce the acidity of the water, slaked lime should be added together with the alum. As a
conclusion, along the flash floods that are occurring, this test can be carried out to help
people especially those in an area that usually will be polluted after the flash floods to use the
clean and safe water in their daily life.
The water in Malaysia was being polluted because of flood during monsoon season. We want to help the countries that experience flood (flash flood, etc) especially Kelantanese to solve their problems by producing safe water for their domestic use.THE SAFE WATER TO BE USED DURING FLOODING SEASON
Water safety for domestic use after floods, cyclones and disasters can be associated with health risks, infections and water-borne disease. Raw water is being polluted by harmful substances and organic substances during flooding season. The electrical supply also fail to work. A Gamma Water Tank had been created to produce safe domestic water. Tests had been run to prove the safety of the Gamma Water Tank. The raw water was first being treated with alum in screening tank. Then the water flow through the screening tank into the sedimentation tank. In the sedimentation tank the velocity of flow which carries the water horizontally will settle the particle at the bottom of the tank. The water then being aerated to remove dissolved gases. The water is then being filtered before being added with chlorine. All of the water samples go through some tests which are pH test, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). It was found that River water has the pH of 6.93 after going through Gamma Water Tank. The pH turns into 7.00 after being added by 2mg/l of chlorine. The pH of Well water after going through Gamma Water Tank is 6.86 and turns to 6.99 after being added by chlorine. As for the Spring water, the pH is 7.31 but turns to 7.00 after being added by chlorine. In BOD test, it was found that all of the waters decolourise after 5 hours. It shows that all of the waters have low level of water pollution. Lastly as for COD, it shows that both River Water and Well Water both contain 100mg/l of COD level. Both River and Well water contain more oxidizable pollutants than in Spring water (10mg/l of COD level). But both of waters still safe to be used as they do not exceed the COD level of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP). Gamma Water Tank is a mini portable water plant treatment be made per family so that their usage of water in a day is enough. The 3 gallons water being supplied per family in evacuation centre can be used as drinking water while the water being treated by Gamma Water Tank can be used for domestic daily usage. Thus, they can live their life healthily with sufficient water sources.